Apartheid or Apartness #2 Up to 2nd part 20th Century

3. First part of 20th century

When the Union of South Africa came into being in 1910 the white people got all the functions and major positions.

The African National Congress (ANC), formed in 1912, became the opponent of apartheid, later followed by other movements.

In 1913 the Land Act was introduced to prevent blacks, except those living in Cape Province, from buying land outside reserves.


Afrikaner Broederbond leadership in 1918

The greatest threat for the blacks came in 1918 from the Secret Broederbond (brotherhood) established to advance the Afrikaner cause. ANC responds with campaign of civil disobedience, led by Nelson Mandela.

The Pioniers or Frontiersmen with attitudes born of exclusiveness and fear, white trade unionists determined to exclude unorganized and cheap non-white labour, and industrialists equally determined to keep that labour unorganized and cheap all contributed to the establishment of a framework of segregation. Both before and after 1948 this framework was substantially strengthened. A vast range of industrial and service occupations was reserved exclusively for white workers, and statutory powers were created to extend this policy in time of recession.

Though originally the land belonged to the black African population the whites conserved it their own country. Ownership of land by black Africans was limited to designated native reserves comprising only 13 percent of the land surface.

The right to vote was denied to non-white men, and all black Africans were required to obtain permission before they could enter and remain in urban areas.

In 1948 the Reunited National Party won the white minority elections and hailed their victory as a “Miracle” and clear proof that God was watching over his Volk”. Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the enactment of apartheid laws on the 28th May 1948. To the rest of the world the new government portrayed a Western style democracy. But they believed in a political system in which preferably broederbonders ran the government. They backed up words and belief with deeds. Afrikaner interest would take precedence over everything else.

4. Second half 20th century

Sexual relations and marriage between whites and nonwhites were made illegal in 1949-1950 and the immorality act became the first major piece of apartheid legislation. (Meaning of mixed marriage – white South Africans by law could no marry blacks or any of the other ethnic groups in South Africa).

Apartheid pass book

In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (African), or coloured (of mixed decent). The coloured category included major subgroups of Indians and Asians. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent.

African ancestors: The indigenous hunter-gatherers of southern Africa, often referred to as Bushmen, represent the oldest known lineage of modern man

This law started of a witch-hunt at which the police tracked down mixed couples suspected of having a relationship. Homes were invaded and doors were smashed down in the process. Mixed couples caught in bed, were arrested. Underwear was used as forensic evidence in court. Most couples found guilty were sent to jail. Blacks were often given harsher sentences.
[{One of the first people convicted of the immorality act was a Cape Dutch reformed minister; he was caught having sex with a domestic worker in his garage. He was given a suspended sentence and the parishioners bulldozed the garage to the ground.} Mixed Marriages and The Immorality Act]

Nazi-rules were taken on and people were checked if they felt in such or such category according to the books. Race became defined by physical appearance and all citizens were issued with identity documents in which the race of a person was clearly marked. [{Staunch Afrikaner parents, abandoned children with frizzy hair and or children with dark skin. They were regarded as outcasts by the biological Afrikaner parents.} Population Registration Act]

J.C. Nott, The Types of Mankind

The suture lines in the skulls were drawn with false variations between “species” of men. Real skulls in different peoples of the world are quite similar, and the list of misconceptions only starts there… - J.C. Nott, The Types of Mankind

The advocates of apartheid declared that the government country legislation was necessary because they regarded Africans living in urban areas and on white-owned farms as aliens, temporarily residing in white society. Only in the native reserves, officially known as Bantu homelands, could black Africans hope to obtain political and economic freedom. After their 19th-century conquest, a modified system of traditional authority was retained in the reserves, together with communal landownership and the recognition of African family law.

In 1951 the Minister of Native Affairs was given the power to remove blacks from public or privately owned land and to establishment resettlement camps to house these displaced people.

South-African Homelands

In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act established a basis for ethnic government in African reserves, known as “homelands.” These homelands [bantustan (also known as black African homeland or simply homeland)] were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland.

In the Transkei, the form, if not the substance, of political power had to be found. A prime minister and cabinet sat in a legislative assembly made up of 65 nominated members and 45 elected members, but its authority was limited and the South African president retained the right of veto.

In 1953, the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed, which empowered the government to declare stringent states of emergency and increased penalties for protesting against or supporting the repeal of a law. The penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.


Preceding article: Apartheid or Apartness #1 Suppression and Apartness

To be continued: 5. Opposition + 6. Escalation


Read also:

The Broederbond and Apartheid

May 20, 1959 Senate Speech Promoting Bantu Self Government – HF Verwoerd
“I want to argue as follows. If that will be the result, if through the capabilities of the Bantu it happens that here in South Africa there will be a White state, a big and strong White nation, along with various Bantu national units and areas (or states, if you like) how is that different from what we have in Europe? Are there not in other parts of the world such as Europe, South America and Asia, various nations and states next to each other within the same continent or part of a continent? What would have happened to France, to Germany and to Britain if they had lost all their borders and their populations had become intermingled?”
“Therefore to talk about partition and sub-division as being a distasteful pattern is utterly nonsensical, because in terms of both policies there will be Black areas, and in terms of the policy of apartheid the White man will at least control his own area, whatever the difficulties might be and however hard it might be. He at least has the opportunity to save himself, which under a multi-racially controlled state he will not have.”
“The in-flowing Black workers have increased in number to such an extent that a multi-racial Government must follow and in that way they will become the conquerors of White South Africa, just as the Jamaicans would be in England if they were permitted to do the same thing that the Leader of the Opposition says took place here since the First World War. That is the most peculiar argument I have ever heard as a plea for the granting of political rights to the Bantu, as is the statement that we should not protect ourselves and should not keep the government of the country in our own hands. In the time of Botha, Smuts and Hertzog it was correct, but not in our time, it seems, because we have been conquered already by the large number of immigrants. ”


About Marcus Ampe

Retired dancer, choreographer, choreologist Founder of the Dance impresario office and archive: Danscontact-Dansarchief plus the Association for Bible scholars, the Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" and "From Guestwriters" and creator of the site "Messiah for all". - Gepensioneerd danser, choreograaf, choreoloog. Stichter van Danscontact-Dansarchief plus van de Vereniging voor Bijbelvorsers, de Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" en "From Guestwriters" en maker van de site "Messiah for all".
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6 Responses to Apartheid or Apartness #2 Up to 2nd part 20th Century

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