Mother of Ukraine or Crimea

Usurpers

Today 1546 years ago Simplicius became bishop of Rome whilst an usurper had driven Emperor Zeno from the throne and rivals tortured and killed each other, fighting for a “mother of God”, not able to see God has never had a mother. but everything was about powere and having enough people following them.

False teachings, popularisation, bread and games had weakened the states. You would think by the years people would learn from the earlier mistakes. But the lessons have not been learned. Many of the same basic mistakes that weakened the once mighty Roman Empire before its toppling by barbarian hordes are now being repeated in America, Britain and the Western world.

Power states

After World War II we could find two Power States: The United States of America and the Soviet Union. Later a third one came into the picture wanting to have its share of worldpower: China.

US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger during an interview conducted in September of 1981 said:

“We have to ensure that this Soviet empire, when it breaks apart due to its internal contradictions, does so with a whimper rather than a bang”

Political map of Ukraine, highlighting Crimean...

Political map of Ukraine, highlighting Crimean Oblast (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Well loved peninsula

Who would ever thought a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea would cause again that feeling of the Cold War?

In the fifties and sixties of the previous century the Crimea was presented to us as a place of warfare, where everybody wanted to have its foot on the ground.

The 10 400 sq mi or 27 00sq km, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov got Cimmerians, Bulgars, Greeks over its oblast, a level steppe region, and over its lower mountain slopes of the south where many vineyards could be found. After the Greeks it was colonized by the Romans, Scythians, Ostrogoths, Huns, Mongols, and Khazars,

The phosphorus found could light many, like the state of Kievan Rus’, Byzantine Greeks, Kipchaks, Ottoman Turks, Golden Horde Tatars and the Mongols, who each controlled Crimea in its earlier history. The Venetians and the Genoese partly controlled it in the 13th century.

Since  the 14° century the Crimea became the ancestral homeland of the Crimean Tatars. A Tatar Khanate ruled by the Giray family dominated the area from the early 15th century. As the Crimean Tatar economy depended on the slave trade and raids into Russian and other Slavic lands, it was inevitable that Russia would strive to gain dominance over the peninsula. But it was only in the eighteenth century that Russia had sufficient power to defeat, and, ultimately, annex the peninsula and incorporate the remaining Tatars into their empire. Following Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, the region’s conquest by Russian armies in 1783 annexation took place, incorporating it into the Russian Empire, eventually becoming part of Tavricheskaia Province (guberniia).

Russian domination

Russian domination put enormous pressures on the Tatars — causing many to emigrate to the Balkans and Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century. One of the Tatar intellectuals, Is-mail Bey Gaspirali, tried to establish an educational system for the Tatars that would allow them to survive, as Tatars and as Muslims, within the Russian Empire. He had substantial influence over other Turkic Muslims within the empire, an influence that spread also to Turkish intellectuals in Istanbul. {Fisher, Alan; Encyclopedia of Russian History}

English: The flag of the Crimean Autonomous So...

The flag of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 1921. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

As the civil war between Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik forces wound down, the Crimea was designated the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 18 October 1921. It was populated primarily by Tatars, until they were dispersed in May 1944 for alleged collaboration with the Germans. The region transferred to the administrative control of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) in 1946.
The Ukrainian Nikita Khrushchev gave it in 1954 to his mothercountry,  Ukraine, as an oblast within the Ukrainian SSR.

Coat of arms of the Union of Soviet Socialist ...

Coat of arms of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1958 to 1991 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Crimean Tatars

The Tatars after the collapse of the Soviet Union saw some hope in a restoration of autonomous status and transferrai of their homeland to the RSFSR once again were submitted to Communist party and state authorities in the last years of the Soviet Union.

Continued efforts made by Tatars to reestablish some of their communities on the peninsula did not bring them back into power. Crimean Tatars remain one of the many “nationalities” of the former USSR that have not been able to establish a new nation.

With most of the Crimean Tatars dispersed in Central Asia (principally in the Krasnodar region [Kherson Oblast] of Uzbekistan, in and around Tashkent) and still severely limited in their right to return home, their numbers in the Crimea account for less than 1 percent of the population, the bulk of which is made up of Russians and Ukrainians. By 1993, however, about 250,000 Crimean Tatars had returned to the Crimea and about 700,000 were living elsewhere in the former Soviet Union.

Ethnic Russians constitute more than half of the Crimea’s population; Ukrainians more than a quarter.

Protesters at Independence Square on the first...

Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Orange Revolution '04

Orange Revolution ’04 (Photo credit: saritarobinson)

Orange and winter revolution

After the release of the glamorous, fiery orator who helped lead Ukraine’s Orange Revolution against a corrupt election in 2004, made possible by a vote in parliament that changed the criminal code – part of the EU-led deal that President Viktor Yanukovych had signed end of February. For many Yulia Tymoshenko is the ‘mother of the country’, the goddess of the Ukrainian people.

She and her ally Viktor Yushchenko had in 2004 packed the streets of Ukraine in protest at a rigged election that went in favour of the pro-Russian Mr Yanukovych.

Trading grounds

Europe’s second largest country would not like to loose the the industrialised east, Crimea, where Russian influence is particularly strong . Having the Russian Black Sea Fleet based there, Russia shall not easily give up that region.

Although trade with EU countries now exceeds that with Russia, Moscow is the largest individual trading partner. Ukraine depends on Russia for its gas supplies and forms an important part of the pipeline transit route for Russian gas exports to Europe.

The Ukrainian economy’s dependence on steel exports made it particularly vulnerable to the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008, and in October of that year the country was offered a $16.5bn (£10.4bn) loan by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). A further IMF bailout of $15bn (£9bn) was approved in 2010 but frozen the following year after the government failed to implement the financial reforms required as a condition of the loan. {Ukraine profile}

EU or Russia

Recent moves to reach an association agreement with the EU – seen as a key step towards eventual EU membership – again fuelled tensions with Russia, and the government’s decision to drop the agreement brought tens of thousands of protesters out onto the streets in November 2013, eventually forcing the collapse of the Yanukovych government. {Ukraine profile}

Supporters of pro-Western opposition leader and presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko in Kiev's Independence Square on 8 December 2004

The euphoria of the Orange Revolution protesters gave way to disappointment as its leaders squabbled once in power.

Looking for the mother of the country

On television we could see ardent lovers of Russia, who consider that part where they are living as part of Russia and not Ukraine. Others gave their likings to the goddess of the country who has been liberated at last.

Russians would not like to loose the place where many of them, like Mikhail Gorbachev, to have their vacation. It recognises Crimea being an autonomous part of Ukraine and would like to see it staying that way or to have it becoming totally independent.

In 1992 there was an abortive attempt by the Russian-dominated Crimean government to declare independence. Elected Crimea’s first president in 1994, Yuri Meshkov called for the rejoining of the Crimea with Russia. In 1995, Crimea’s government was placed under national control and Meshkov was ousted, but its assembly was retained. An accord the same year between Ukraine and Russia called for the division of the Black Sea fleet, and in 1997 it was agreed that Russia would be allowed to base its portion of the fleet there for 20 years. Tensions between Crimea’s ethnic Russians and the Ukrainian national government continue to mark Crimean and Ukrainian politics; another source of tension have been demands by repatriated Tatars for land. {The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., 2013}

From 1998 to 2002 the peninsula was led by Communists, who controlled the local parliament, and pro-Ukrainian presidential centrists in the regional government. In the 2002 elections the Communists lost their majority in the local parliament, and it, like the regional government, came under the control of pro-Ukrainian presidential centrists.

Crimea became part of independent Ukraine with the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Choices to be made anno 2014

The majority of those living in Crimea today are ethnic Russians – almost 1,200,000 or around 58.3 percent of the populations, according to the latest national census conducted back in 2001. Some 24 percent are Ukrainians (around 500,000) and 12 percent are Crimean Tatars. However, in the Crimea’s largest city of Sevastopol, which is considered a separate region of Crimea, there are almost no Crimean Tatars and around 22 percent of Ukrainians, with over 70 percent of the population being Russians. {Crossroads of Crimea: Facts you need to know about Ukraine region}

Rising tensions

Orange Revolution '04

Orange Revolution ’04 (Photo credit: saritarobinson)

After the recent revolt in Ukraine tensions between Russia and the West continue to rise, the Washington Post has taken a look back at the New York Times op-ed Vladimir Putin wrote a year ago when he was facing the possibility of American military intervention in Syria.

If Saturday was the day when Vladimir Putin won official backing from his parliament to introduce troops to Ukraine, Sunday was when Russia mobilised its military to attempt to win the new Crimean war without firing a single bullet.

writes from Feodosia, for the Guardian.

Across the peninsula, Russian armoured personnel carriers arrived at Ukrainian bases and pressured the inhabitants to give up their arms, as politicians in Kiev spoke of an “invasion” and the west looked on in horror. The head of the navy, Denis Berezovsky, appeared on television to announce he was defecting to the pro-Moscow Crimean separatists, though he was quickly fired and accused by Kiev of treason. Elsewhere, for now, the Ukrainian military appeared to be holding strong.

Military personnel in Feodosiya Ukrainian marines guard the gates of their base in Feodosia. Viktor Drachev/AFP/Getty Images

It was still not clear exactly what the Kremlin’s goal was in Ukraine, though increasingly the signs seemed to point to an annexation of Crimea, at the very least. Checkpoints manned by irregulars remained on major roads, and troops were spotted digging trenches at the narrow entrance to Crimea from the rest of Ukraine. Across the peninsula, soldiers executed pinpoint visits to Ukrainian military facilities, demanding that the Ukrainians give up their weapons and pledge their allegiance to the new authorities in Crimea.

Moving troupes

The previous days we could see the trucks without number plates and soldiers with no particular signs on their uniforms. This weekend we saw more people coming out of their houses waving Russian and Crimean flags. More Pro’s than con’s were heard. Women handed out tea and sandwiches, and people sang songs to the accompaniment of an accordion. The mood did not seem to look grim, but was more positive, with chants of “Russia! Russia!”, giving signs to foreign journalists that now time has come to give independence back to the region and to unite the strong bands again with Russia.

At Perevalnoye, not far from the regional capital, Simferopol, more than a dozen trucks stood nearby as more than 100 soldiers patrolled the perimeter and nearby hills. The Ukrainian coastguard division inside said they would not give up the base, staring out at the Russians from behind the gate.

After negotiations, the two sides agreed not to point their guns at each other, but the standoff remained tense, with a priest from the nearby Ukrainian orthodox church reciting prayers and brandishing a cross.

Reuters wrote that Ukraine mobilized for war on Sunday and Washington threatened to isolate Russia economically after President Vladimir Putin declared he had the right to invade his neighbor in Moscow’s biggest confrontation with the West since the Cold War.

“This is not a threat: this is actually the declaration of war to my country,”

Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseny Yatseniuk said in English. Yatsenuik heads a pro-Western government that took power in the former Soviet republic when its Moscow-backed president, Viktor Yanukovich, was ousted last week.

Military and diplomatic forces

Putin secured permission from his parliament on Saturday to use military force to protect Russian citizens in Ukraine and told U.S. President Barack Obama he had the right to defend Russian interests and nationals, spurning Western pleas not to intervene.

As Western countries considered how to respond to the crisis, the United States said it was focused on economic, diplomatic and political measures, but made clear it was not seriously considering military action.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry will visit Kiev on Tuesday to show “strong support for Ukrainian sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, and the right of the Ukrainian people to determine their own future, without outside interference or provocation,” the State Department said in a statement.

Europe discussed the matter today and give Russia time to leave Crimea, before taking sanctions. How the outsiders will react should depend much more on how the people from the concerned regions shall choose which mother they would like to have. Lots of people let Europe already know that they would like to have commercial activities with them, but that they also shall need Russia for their gas and oil.

The German Foreign Minister, Steinmeier told to reporters this morning in Brussels that

“EU must not fall into abyss of military escalation”.

The emergency talks, convened as Russian President Vladimir Putin seized the Crimean peninsula and said he had the right to invade his neighbour, are expected to result in a strongly worded statement of condemnation, but no immediate punitive measures.

The new Ukrainian Prime Minister, Arseniy Yatsenyuk said today that he “will never give up Crimea” as the tension is rising on the pro-russian region. Moscow has put 150,000 troops on high alert near Ukraine’s border, it has shown no signs, yet, of sending them and denies Ukrainian allegations it sent the protesters who have hoisted Russian flags in some eastern towns.

Russia is now in de facto military control of the Crimea region, despite Western condemnation of a “violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty”.

Ukraine has ordered full mobilisation to counter the military intervention. and on the midday journal we could see several parents saying that they are not afraid to have their children being called up for duty, to fight against the Russians if necessary, though they should know the Russian army is so much mightier than the Ukrainian, having it more looking like David against Goliath.

Calling for defending human rights

Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Russia was defending human rights against “ultra-nationalist threats”.

“The victors intend to make use of the fruits of their victory to attack human rights and fundamental freedoms of minorities.

Mr Lavrov, who will meet UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in Geneva later, also condemned Western threats of sanctions and boycotts.

+

Please do find:

  1. the booklet: Are We The Modern Romans
  2. Special Report: Ukraine Direct
  3. Ukraine crisis: Russia vows troops will stay
  4. West is Impudent – This is like the Fall of Rome
  5. Crimea: A Microcosm of East-West Conflict
  6. Crimea Contemplates Long Road Back to Russia
  7. Ukraine Confronts Rebellious Crimea
  8. The Social-Psychological Roots of the Ethnic Problems in Crimea
  9. Christianizing Crimea: Shaping Sacred Space in the Russian Empire and Beyond
  10. Why Crimea, Soviet ‘Gift’ to Ukraine, Remains Strongly Russian
  11. Crimea Votes for Greater Freedom from Ukraine Self-Determination in Black Sea…
  12. Ukraine as it happened: Putin says ‘threat of ultranationalists’ forced him to intervene
  13. Ukraine crisis: ‘We won’t give up without a fight’
  14. The Ukraine crisis: John Kerry and Nato must calm down and back off
  15. Britain concerned Russia may move further into Ukraine
  16. Chess in a Minefield: The Global Implications of the Ukraine Conflict
  17. Simplicius Against the Monophysites

+++

  • Five top military, security commanders take oath to Crimea (freedomportal.net)
    According to a statement issued by the White House, Obama expressed “his deep concern over Russia’s clear violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity” and called on Putin to order withdrawal of Russian forces from Crimea back to their bases.
    +
    US Senator Bob Corker called for immediate sanctions against Russia for any potential military intervention in Ukraine.”Vladimir Putin is seizing a neighboring territory — again — so President Obama must lead a meaningful, unified response,” Corker said in a statement.

    The Ukrainian army was put on a combat alert as the country’s acting President Oleksandr Turchynov said on Saturday that any Russia’s military intervention will lead to a war in the crisis-hit country.

  • NATO urges Russia to withdraw troops from Crimea (freedomportal.net)
    + Up to 143,000 Ukrainians requested asylum in Russia in two weeks
    Out of 45 million people living in Ukraine, according to 2013 census, some 7.6 million are ethnic Russians.
  • Ukraine: A Brief History of Crimea – Voice of America news com (sjpaderborn.wordpress.com)
    The Crimean War of 1853-56, which pitted Russia against an alliance of Great Britain, France, Sardinia and Turkey, was fought mainly on the peninsula.  The allied forces took the city of Sevastopol, the home of the Tsar’s Black Sea Fleet, after a long siege, and by the war’s end, the Crimea lay in ruins.
  • Contested turf: a troubled past and a divided people (irishtimes.com)
    Empress Catherine the Great annexed the territory for Russia in 1783, and her lover Grigory Potemkin is credited with founding the port of Sevastopol. The Black Sea naval fleet that is still based there.As Europe’s powers jostled for influence, Russia lost the 1853-6 Crimean War to an alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire. Many Tatars fled the fighting.
  • Ukraine’s Tatars lie low as Russia seizes Crimea (worldbulletin.net)
    Only five days ago, Tatars of Ukraine’s Crimea came out in their thousands  to show loyalty to the new authorities in Kiev and opposition to separatist demands by the region’s Russian ethnic majority.But now, with Moscow’s military forces having unexpectedly seized control, the indigenous Muslim people of the isolated Black Sea peninsula have all but vanished from the public square, keeping their heads down to avoid being sucked into war.

    “If there is a conflict, as the minority, we will be the first to suffer,” said Usein Sarano, 57, as the midday call to prayer rung out from the 16th-century stone minarets of Bakhchisaray, once an ancient Tatar capital.

    “We are scared for our families, for our children. This could be a new Yugoslavia.”

     

  • Crossroads of Crimea: Facts you need to know about Ukraine region (therebel.org)
    As the Tsardom of Russia grew stronger, one of the most vital issues for its rulers was to protect the southern borders against the raids. For this purpose, Moscow accepted the loyalty of Cossack-ruled Zaporizhian Sich, which also proved to be a defining moment in the formation of present-day Ukraine.The Russian Empire eventually did away with its historical rival in the 18th century as a result of several victorious Russo-Turkish wars. As part of the 1774 Kuchuk-Kainarji peace treaty the Crimean Khanate aligned itself with Russia, but Catherine the Great soon annexed its lands, giving them a historic Greek name of Taurida.
    +
    The turmoil of the Russian Civil War gravely affected the region, bringing both the notorious “Red Terror” and a severely weakened economy, which caused the Crimean population to be unable to cope with the great famine of 1921–1923. Of the famine’s 100,000 victims some 75,000 were Crimean Tatars, mainly because they relied on livestock breeding in mountainous areas with very limited lands and did not grow many crops.

    +
    Adding to the confusion was also the status of Soviet-times Sevastopol, which not only remained the largest Crimean city, but also retained its special strategic and military profile. In 1948, Sevastopol was separated from the surrounding region and made directly subordinate to Moscow. Serving as an important Soviet naval base, it used to be a “closed city” for years.

    In the 1990s, the status of Sevastopol became the subject of endless debates between Russia and Ukraine. Following negotiations, the city with the surrounding territories was granted a special “state significance” status within the Ukrainian state, and some of the naval facilities were leased to Russia for its Black Sea Fleet until at least 2047. However, the city’s Russian majority and some outspoken Russian politicians still consider it to be a part of Russia.

  • A brief history of Crimea (sofiaglobe.com)
    In a recent poll of Russians by the state-run All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion, 56 percent of the respondents said they saw Crimea as belonging to Russia.Smaller numbers of those polled said they felt the same way about two of Russia’s Muslim regions – Dagestan (41 percent) and Chechnya (39 percent).
  • A Brief History of Crimea (voanews.com)
    Ethnic Russians account for 58 percent of Crimea’s population, while Ukrainians make up 24 percent.  Crimean Tatars, who began returning to the peninsula from exile after the fall of the Soviet Union, comprise 12 percent of its population.
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About Marcus Ampe

Retired dancer, choreographer, choreologist Founder of the Dance impresario office and archive: Danscontact-Dansarchief plus the Association for Bible scholars, the Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" and "From Guestwriters" and creator of the site "Messiah for all". - Gepensioneerd danser, choreograaf, choreoloog. Stichter van Danscontact-Dansarchief plus van de Vereniging voor Bijbelvorsers, de Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" en "From Guestwriters" en maker van de site "Messiah for all".
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2 Responses to Mother of Ukraine or Crimea

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