Turkey anno 1992 #2

1992 Turkey analysed

English: Presidential flag of Turkey. The 16 s...

Presidential flag of Turkey. The 16 stars represent 16 claimed historical Turkic empires. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A republic of Asia Minor and southeastern Europe, Turkey has coastlines on the Aegean, Black, and Mediterranean seas. Area: 779,452 sq kin (300,948 sq mi), including 23,764 sq km in Europe. Pop. (1992 est.): 58,584,000. Cap.: Ankara. Monetary

Lit: Turkish lira, with (Oct. 5, 1992) a free rate of 7,511 liras to U.S. $1 (12,768 liras = £1 sterling).

President in 1992, Turgut Oral; prime minister, Suleyman Demirel.


The coalition government formed by Suleyman Demirel, leader of the centre-right True Path Party, with Erdal Inonu‘s Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP) as a junior partner, continued the policy initiated by Pres. Turgut Ozal of establishing Turkey as a bastion of stability in a troubled region.
Turkey’s willingness to work with the U.S. in promoting stability was stressed by Prime Minister Demirel when he conferred with Pres. George Bush in Washington on Feb. 11, 1992. A similar message was conveyed to French Pres. François Mitterrand when the latter went to Ankara on April 13. Demirel visited the Turkic republics of the former Soviet Union between April 27 and May 3 and Moscow on May 25-26.

English: Prime Minister of Greece Konstantinos...

Prime Minister of Greece Konstantinos Mitsotakis (left) and Prime Minister of Turkey Süleyman Demirel. (1992 World Economic Forum) (1992 Dünya Ekonomik Forumu) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

On June 25 Turkey was host to the first summit meeting of the Black Sea economic cooperation region, a project that had been launched by President Ozal. The summit, which brought together the leaders of Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Greece, was followed by Turkish attempts to help find a peaceful solution to the dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh.
Turkey also played an active part in efforts to halt the bloodshed in Bosnia and Hercegovina, but its advocacy of threatening the Serbs with air strikes did little to ease the position of Bosnian Muslims. The Black Sea summit allowed Demirel to confer with his Greek counterpart, Konstantinos Mitsotakis, but once again the conclusion of a friendship pact was postponed pending solution of the Cyprus dispute.

Istanbul 1992 f34b

Costermongers in Istanbul – 1992

At home, the government’s parliamentary majority was reduced by defections from the SHP, while the opposition was weakened by President Ozal’s efforts to wrest control of the Motherland Party, which he had founded, from the kinds of its current leader, Mesut Yilmaz. The first rift in the ranks of the Social Democrats occurred over the Kurdish issue. After the government intensified military measures to counter the terrorist campaign of the separatist Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK), 18 radical Kurdish members of Parliament, who had been elected on the SHP ticket in October 1991, resigned and rejoined the — predominantly Kurdish — People’s Labour Party. Then in September, after Parliament revoked a law passed in 1980 banning all political parties existing at the time, the SHP’s precursor, the Republican People’s Party, was reconstituted and elected Inonu’s rival.

Deniz Baykal as its leader. Baykal and 17 other members of Parliament thereupon resigned from the SHP, while former prime minister Bulent Ecevit lost four members of his small Democratic Left Party.

The Kurdish campaign caused over 1,000 casualties in 1992. The worst incident occurred on September 29 when some 23 members of the security forces and up to 200 terrorists were killed in an attack on a post guarding the Iraq frontier. The government responded by launching ground and air operations both within the country and across tin frontier. At the same time, it reached agreement with tin governments of Syria and Iran, and with leaders of the Iraq Kurds, to deny the terrorists facilities across the border Masoud Barzani and Jalal Talabani, the two main leader: of the Iraqi Kurds, visited Ankara, and in October forces under their command attacked PKK camps in northern Iraq. By late November more than half the PKK forces had reportedly been killed, wounded, or captured.

Turkey 1992 Inland - Cappadocian village 38j

Living situations in central Turkey – Cappadocia 1992

After stagnating in 1991, the economy grew by over 6% in the first half of 1992. The new government’s promise to halt the rise in prices could not be fulfilled, and the consumer price index rose by 44% in the first eight months Nevertheless, a good export performance and the revival of tourism after the Gulf war led to an increase in foreign currency reserves, and Turkey was able to service its foreign debt of some $50 billion and to attract fresh foreign investment.
The first two power units of the Ataturk dam on the Euphrates, the centrepiece of the vast southeast Anatolia project, were commissioned on July 25.

Text: Andrew Mango, Foreign Affairs Analyst, 1993 Britannica Book of the Year p.393

Photos not credited to Wikipedia by Marcus Ampe & Marjolein Pronk

Turkijë Cappadocian arbeidersatelier 1992

Cappadocian smith – 1992


Preceding article: Turkey anno 1992 #1


Find more on Turkey:

  1. Hasankeyf: A City On The Edge Of Disappearing
  2. Noahs Ark
  3. Archaeology and the Bible
  4. Turkey and Pictures for the times coming
  5. Ageing and Solidarity between generations
  6. Migrants to the West #6
  7. Problems by losing the borders
  8. Turkey a wolf in the sheep house of the European Union
  9. Negative consequences of Special Labelling and Trade-Restrictive measures
  10. Humanitarian crisis in Syria
  11. Relieve the current humanitarian crisis in Syria
  12. Growing separation and problems in Turkey
  13. Turkey vs. Israël
  14. Unprecedented violence against protesters and social protest
  15. Islamic State forcing the West to provide means for Kurdistan
  16. Caliphs and the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government

In Dutch:

  1. Staat Europa voor vrijheid van godsdienst
  2. Kerk in Tarsus blijft museum
  3. Teruggave St.Pauluskerk in Tarsus
  4. Schieten op hulpgoederenvoorzieners
  5. Eucharistie in Van
  6. Gevolgen van beperkingen van vrijheid in Turkijë
  7. Muziek van imam Ahmet Muhsin Tuzer al of niet ‘onislamitisch’


Additional reading:

  1. Turkey toward 2000
  2. Turkey’s Candidacy for EU Membership
  3. Turkey’s Choice: Istanbul or Constantinople?
  4. Turkey’s March West
  5. Turkey Is Too Important to Leave Completely out of the European Union
  6. Turkey’s Role in the Middle East: An Outsider’s Perspective
  7. Turkey: Turkey, Islamists and Democracy: Transition and Globalization in a…
  8. Turkey Is Critical to a More Moderate Islam
  9. Turkey’s Rising Clout Leaves Iran Fuming on Sidelines of Arab Spring
  10. Turkey’s Neighborly Interests; Thinking Ahead on Iran, Iraq, Syria
  11. Turkey Wants Iraq Disarmed; Is Committed to Finding Peaceful Resolutions
  12. Turkey Stays out of Syrian Conflict; Nation Will Keep Cool Head, Leader Asserts
  13. Turkey’s Relations with Arab States and Israel
  14. Turkey’s Foray into the Fertile Crescent
  15. Turkey Responds Angrily to Perry Remarks
  16. Turkey’s Meager Harvest of Gulf Promises
  17. Turkey Leans on Museums to Return Their Lost Treasures
  18. Turkey’s New Index for Ties to the World with Kurd Leader Due to Be Tried,…
  19. Turkey Makes Deal with Iraqi Kurds on Border Security
  20. Turkey’s Pursuit of Kurds Disturbs the Neighbors Ankara Feels Surrounded by…
  21. Turkey Uses U.S. Arms to Attack Kurds
  22. Precarious Kurdish Unity
  23. Winning Kurdish Hearts & Hands
  24. A Time to Kill? Sad Litany of US Assassination Plots
  25. Polls Close in Iraqi Kurdistan Elections
  26. ‘Last True Enemy’ of Saddam Vows Guerrilla-Style Warfare Interview with Kurdish Rebel
  27. A Turkish Foreign Ministry delegation visited northern Iraq to meet Masoud Barzani in order to dispel ongoing “rumors” of a rift between Ankara and the KDP: Crosscurrents
  28. Tulsa Minister, Inhofe Gain Kurdish Cleric’s Freedom
  29. Kurds Defy Critics, Unify on Vote after First Free Election, Rival Iraqi…
  30. Democracy or Partition: Future Scenarios for the Kurds of Iraq
  31. The Turkish Incursion into Iraq: “Operation Steel” Is a Legitimate Response…
  32. Turkey: How Erdogan Did It-And Could Blow It
  33. Turkey: The Mideast’s Real Revolution
  34. Turkey Accepts Offer for Cyprus Envoy: Move Raises Hopes for Talks with Greece
  35. Turkey: Dimensions of Western Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey
  36. Turkey: Why ‘Armenian Genocide’ Resolution May Hurt US Interests
  37. Turkey’s Unified Front; Will It Continue to Trust the United States?
  38. Turkey Seeks Stronger Ties with Africa
  39. Turkey Takes Lead in Rebuilding Somalia
  40. Armenia (country, Asia)
  41. Armenia, Turkey Seek Better Relations; Power Balance May Shift Away from…
  42. Prospects for Normalization between Armenia and Turkey: A View from Yerevan
  43. Armenia, the Regional Powers, and the West: Between History and…
  44. Dispatch from Armenia: The Not So Frozen War
  45. Armenia Strives for Independence Soviet Republic Introduces Rapid Reforms to…
  46. A Nation That Lost the Ark; Travel Mail, Armenia Was Once Noah’s Safe Haven,…
  47. Blurred Borders: Armenia vs. Azerbaijan. (Global Notebook)
  48. Forgotten Armenia Unnoticed amid Bosnia and Somalia, Armenia’s Need This…
  49. A Bittersweet Return to Armenia ; Driven out by Civil War, Refugees from…
  50. West Prepares to Enforce UN Peace Plan for Bosnia Thousands of NATO Troops…
  51. Nagorno-Karabakh
  52. Azerbaijanis and Nagorno-Karabakh
  53. Nagorno-Karabakh in Limbo
  54. The Wannabe Nation of Nagorno-Karabakh
  55. The Nagorno-Karabakh Settlement Revisited: Is Peace Achievable?
  56. Breakaway State Still Struggling for Recognition; Nagorno-Karabakh Eyes Law…
  57. What Is the Solution to the Armenian-Azerbaijani Conflict? Armenian View:…
  58. Territorial Stalemate: Independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Following the…
  59. Ethnic Conflict and Forced Displacement: Narratives of Azeri IDP and Refugee…
  60. Ethnic Conflict in Ex-Soviet Region Keeps Riches out of Reach Fierce Rivalry…


  • The World Bank’s Support of the Dictatorship in Turkey (1980-1983) (therebel.org)
    The World Bank tried very hard to make the the Turkish military appear salutary, and to avoid criticising their interventions.The official comments from the Bank, that the 1980 coup d’état would not jeopardise the Bank’s intention to lend, were very courteous. 
    Under Robert McNamara, Turkey’s geostrategic importance led the World Bank to increase its efforts to improve matters. A few months after becoming president, in July 1968, Robert McNamara visited Turkey. He knew the country well since it had been a military ally of the United States. As Defense Secretary until 1967 he was in close contact with Ankara. Anxious not to repeat what had happened with Pieter Lieftinck, the World Bank took great care not to appear too openly intrusive in the 1970s  |2|. By the end of the decade it had gradually increased its pressure on the Turkish government, particularly in 1978 when the left-wing nationalist, Bülent Ecevit, became Prime Minister. In particular, the Bank tried to force an increase in the price of electricity.
  • After Gezi: Erdoğan and political struggle in Turkey (revolution-news.com)
    In the year after the Gezi uprising, protests continue against the government’s urban redevelopment plans, against police repression, in response to repression of the Kurdish and Alevi populations, and in honor of the martyrs that lost their lives as a result of the uprising.
  • Turkey: Ukraine crisis to affect natural gas supply (peakoil.com)
    Touching on the possibility that Turkey might encounter dilemmas regarding its natural gas supply due to the Ukrainian crisis, Yıldız said, “Over the past week, the EU, Russia and Ukraine have taken mutual steps and progress has been made in negotiations. We import half of our natural gas from Russia. So, there is a possibility that we may face issues in natural gas supply because of Ukraine. We need to increase geothermal [energy].”
  • Turkey to let Iraqi Kurds reinforce Kobani as U.S. drops arms to defenders (bangordailynews.com)
    Turkey’s refusal to intervene in the fight with Islamic State has frustrated the United States and sparked lethal riots in southeastern Turkey by Kurds furious at Ankara’s failure to help Kobani or at least open a land corridor for volunteer fighters and reinforcements to go there.

    U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said Washington had asked Ankara to help “get the peshmerga or other groups” into Kobani so they could help defend the town, adding he hoped the Kurds would “take this fight on.” The European Union also urged Turkey on Monday to open its border to allow supplies to get through to residents of Kobani.

    If the reinforcements come through, it may mark a turning point in the battle for Kobani, a town where Syrian Kurds have struggled for weeks against better-armed Islamic State fighters trying to reshape the Middle East.

  • EU calls on Turkey to open borders for Kobane support (sundiatapost.com)
    European Union (EU) Foreign Ministers on Monday called on Turkey to open its border with Syria so supplies could reach the besieged Kurdish town of Kobane.

    “The EU appreciates efforts by Turkey to shelter refugees from Kobane and calls on Turkey to open its border for any supply for the people of Kobane,’’ the bloc’s foreign ministers agreed in a statement.

    They unreservedly condemned the attacks, atrocities, killings and abuses of human rights perpetrated by the Islamic State and other terrorist groups in Iraq and Syria, and by the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

  • Turkey denies giving U.S. access to Incirlik airbase (riyadhvision.com)
    Staff Sgt. Rodney Johns marshals an F-16CJ Fighting Falcon to a parking spot at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, after an Operation Northern Watch mission enforcing the northern no-fly-zone over Iraq on Jan. 11, 1999.

    Turkey denied on Monday having granted the United States access to its Incirlik air base to be used for attacking Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) militants in Syria.

    A government official said there was no new agreement over the use by the United States of the Incirlik air base in southern Turkey, which U.S. air forces already use for logistical and humanitarian purposes.

    “There is no new agreement with the United States about Incirlik,” the official, who asked not to be named, told AFP in Ankara.

    “Negotiations are continuing” based on conditions Turkey had previously laid out such as a safe zone inside Syria backed up by a no-fly zone, the official added.

  • Turkey Allows Iraqi Kurds to Send Peshmerga to Besieged Syrian-Kurdish City of Kobane (muftah.org)
    Turkey’s decision to allow Peshmerga fighters into Kobane marks a shift in policy. If the Peshmerga is able to provide effective aid to the town, this could have knock on effects on relations between Turkey and the Turkish-Kurdish Kurdistan Workers’ Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan; PKK), and more significantly between Syrian and Iraqi Kurds.

    Turkey has a record of abuses against its Kurdish population, and has prevented any communication and exchanges between Kurds in Syria, Turkey, and Iraq since the start of the Syrian uprising. Turkey fears that allowing these communities to work together will help Kurds consolidate power and eventually establish a Kurdish state. For these reasons, Turkey has blocked the exchange of aid and fighters between Iraqi, Syrian, and Turkish Kurds, which are aimed at repelling ISIS.

    At the same time, Turkey is the Iraqi-Kurdish Democratic Kurdish Party’s (DKP) closest ally in the region.

  • Turkey would oppose US arms transfers to Kurds (nzherald.co.nz)
    Turkey wouldn’t agree to any U.S. arms transfers to Kurdish fighters who are battling Islamic militants in Syria, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was quoted as saying Sunday, as the extremist group fired more mortar rounds near the Syrian-Turkish border.

    Turkey views the main Syrian Kurdish group, the PYD and its military wing which is fighting IS militants as an extension of the PKK, which has waged a 30-year insurgency in Turkey and is designated a terror group by the U.S. and NATO.

    Washington has said recently that it has engaged in intelligence sharing with Kurdish fighters and officials have not ruled out future arms transfers to the Kurdish fighters.

    “The PYD is for us, equal to the PKK. It is a terror organization,” Erdogan told a group of reporters on his return from a visit to Afghanistan.

    “It would be wrong for the United States with whom we are friends and allies in NATO to talk openly and to expect us to say ‘yes’ to such a support to a terrorist organization,” Erdogan said. His comments were reported by the state-run Anadolu agency on Sunday.

  • Greek Cypriots set to submit EU complaint against Turkey (worldbulletin.net)
    Greek Cypriots will attempt to block Turkey’s ongoing progress in EU accession talks in response to Ankara’s gas exploration activities in waters off the so-called exclusive Greek Cypriot economic zone.

    The Greek Cypriot administration’s National Council announced details of the measures they will take against Turkey in their Tuesday session.

    The administration’s spokesperson, Nicos Christodoulides, said that Greek Cypriot leader Nicos Anastasiades could submit a formal complaint against Turkey to EU leaders next week, during a Council of Europe meeting, aimed at halting Turkey’s full EU membership process.

    Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot government have strongly opposed any unilateral move by the Greek Cypriot administration to explore hydrocarbon resources around the island, saying that its natural resources should be exploited in a fair manner under a united Cyprus.

    The island of Cyprus has remained divided into Greek and Turkish parts since a Greek-Cypriot coup was followed by a Turkish peace mission to aid Turkish Cypriots in the north of the island in 1974.

About Marcus Ampe

Retired dancer, choreographer, choreologist Founder of the Dance impresario office and archive: Danscontact-Dansarchief plus the Association for Bible scholars, the Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" and "From Guestwriters" and creator of the site "Messiah for all". - Gepensioneerd danser, choreograaf, choreoloog. Stichter van Danscontact-Dansarchief plus van de Vereniging voor Bijbelvorsers, de Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" en "From Guestwriters" en maker van de site "Messiah for all".
This entry was posted in Dagboek = Diary, History, News and Politics, Thoughts of others, World and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Turkey anno 1992 #2

  1. Pingback: Turkey inbetween two visits | Marcus' s Space

  2. Pingback: In the aftermath of the failed coup – Some View on the World

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