2015 Health and Welfare

Health resilience, climate risks and Sustainable Development Goals

2015, the year that still 400 million people do not have access to essential health services  — including family planning, antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, child immunization, antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis treatment, and access to clean water and sanitation — and 6% of people in low- and middle-income countries are tipped into or pushed further into extreme poverty because of health spending.

Across 37 countries, 6% of the population was tipped or pushed further into extreme poverty ($1.25/day) because they had to pay for health services out of their own pockets. When the study factored in a poverty measure of $2/day, 17% of people in these countries were impoverished, or further impoverished, by health expenses.

Health got a central place in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The new agenda, which builds on the Millennium Development Goals, aims to be relevant to all countries and focuses on improving equity to meet the needs of women, children and the poorest, most disadvantaged people.

2015 was also a year that we heard a lot about cities restricting transport because of air pollution and had many debates on the hand-sanitiser.

In 2012, the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, WHO estimated 7 million people died from air pollution-related diseases, making it the world’s largest single environmental health risk. It is predicted that climate change will cause an additional 250 000 deaths per year from malaria, diarrhoea or gastroenteritis, heat stress and under-nutrition between 2030 and 2050. Children, women and the poor in lower income countries will be the most vulnerable and most affected, widening health gaps.

Not only are ways to combat climate change already known and well-documented, they can bring important health gains. As WHO’s new series of climate change and health country profiles illustrate, investments in low-carbon development, clean renewable energy, and strengthening climate resilience, are also investments in health.

The Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ...

The Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of UN. Target date: 2015 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Implementing proven interventions to reduce emissions of short-lived climate pollutants, like black carbon and methane, for example achieving higher vehicle emissions and efficiency standards, would be expected to save approximately 2.4 million lives a year and reduce global warming by about 0.5°C by 2050. Placing a price on polluting fuels to compensate their negative health impacts would be expected to cut outdoor air pollution deaths by half, reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 20%, and raise approximately US$ 3 trillion per year in revenue – over half the total value of health spending by all of the world’s governments.

Strengthening health resilience to climate risks, including measures such as early-warning systems for more frequent and severe heatwaves, and protection of water, sanitation, and hygiene services against floods and droughts, would ensure that recent progress against climate-sensitive diseases, is not slowed or reversed.

The Paris agreement, though not sufficient, not doing enough to achieve the stated goal of keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit), might be a step in the right direction.

Minimum wages and working periods

About 100 countries worldwide, including 22 EU countries have statutory national minimum wages. In the EU, national minimum wages are highest in Luxembourg (11.10 € per hour) and lowest in Bulgaria (1,04 € per hour). Contrary to those are countries where minimum wages are set in sector-specific collective agreements. This is usually the case in countries with a high density of trade unions such as Austria, Italy or Sweden.

minimum_wagesIt is very important to take care that there are minimum wages so that people can not be forced to work at unworthy financial compensation. All those who work should be able to support their household. Minimum incomes should protect those with low wages from drifting into poverty. Moreover, they are seen as a means to reduce income inequality. Striking a balance between the needs of a worker and economic factors is the main aim according to the ILO. At the same time, they can be described as a moral value defining the lowest threshold under which employment is not acceptable.

The right of a worker to gain an equitable wage is laid down in the European Social Charter, ratified by all EU Member States. The EU itself has no legal competences on pay. Minimum wages are exclusively defined at national level. However, the discussion on a common European threshold (for example 60% of the national median wage) has gained momentum in recent years. European Commission president Juncker spoke in favour of a European minimum wage in 2013 and again in 2014. The European Parliament has also called for a common European minimum wage in several resolutions.

Several EU Member States have implemented adaptions to their wage policies. The most debated change was the introduction of a national minimum wage of 8.50 € per hour in Germany from 1 January 2015.

Everywhere in Europe governments were looking to keep a balance between the elderly non working population and those fit enough to work. In Belgium it could well be work out that lots of people have to face

“longer work for less money”.

The government probably want to gain money by being sure that not many would be able to work full time until the new retirement age 67. In the Netherlands they already start feeling that the whole operation in the end might be costing more because more people would come on to health and sickness benefit.

Maternal mortality has fallen by 45 per cent; but the goal for 2015 was 75 per cent. There are still 140 million women with no access to modern family planning: the goal for 2015 was universal coverage.

Ebola, measles and polio

Good news about ebola came near the end of 2015. But before that the mortality rate for children under age five wss 80 per cent, while for children under one year, casualty rates were 95 per cent.

By early May 2015, suspected and confirmed cases totaled more than 26,600, and reported deaths numbered more than 11,000, making the outbreak significantly larger than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. The actual numbers of cases and deaths, however, were suspected to be far greater than reported figures. The causative virus was a type of Zaire ebolavirus known as Ebola virus (EBOV)—the deadliest of the ebolaviruses, which originally was discovered in the 1970s in central Africa. EBOV was descended from ebolaviruses harboured by fruit bats. {Ebola outbreak of 201415}

As Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia worked to end Ebola, critical healthcare services damaged by the epidemic began to be revitalised. Supported by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the three countries worst-hit by the disease begun a campaign to immunise three million children against preventable illnesses like measles and polio. This whilst in the UK some people objected against preventive injections for illnesses which can be seriously damaging when caught as an adult.

Before the epidemic in 2013, measles coverage was 89 percent, while in 2014 it fell to 58 percent. Between October 2014 and March 2015, a measles outbreak in the German capital of Berlin resulted in at least 782 cases.

Ten years after Polio reemerged in Indonesia and mostly in in Muslim states because the Muslims resisted against vaccination, we could hear also voices in Western Europe against child vaccination.

As recently as 2012, Nigeria accounted for more than half of all polio cases worldwide. Since then, a concerted effort by all levels of government, civil society, religious leaders and tens of thousands of dedicated health workers have resulted in Nigeria successfully stopping polio, which can cause lifelong paralysis. More than 200 000 volunteers across the country repeatedly immunized more than 45 million children under the age of 5 years, to ensure that no child would suffer from this paralysing disease. Innovative approaches, such as increased community involvement and the establishment of Emergency Operations Centres at the national and state level, have also been pivotal to Nigeria’s success.

WHO announced in September that polio is no longer endemic in Nigeria. This is the first time that Nigeria has interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus, bringing the country and the African region closer than ever to being certified polio-free. Nigeria has not reported a case of wild poliovirus since 24 July 2014, and all laboratory data have confirmed a full 12 months have passed without any new cases.

Polio remains endemic in only 2 countries – Pakistan and Afghanistan. The eradication of polio globally now depends primarily on stopping the disease in these countries. As long as polio exists anywhere, it’s a threat to children everywhere.

On Friday, August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared its third Public Health Emergency of International Concern in response to the outbreak of Ebola in Western Africa, and now it had to declare a public health emergency of international concern due to outbreaks of the polio disease in Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Meanwhile, Ebola had a significant impact on Sierra Leone’s vaccination regime, with routine vaccinations decreasing by 17 percent during the epidemic. Since the start of 2015, 21 laboratory confirmed cases of measles have been reported. In May, an immunisation drive for 1.5 million children under five was to cover measles and polio.

For Sierra Leone’s President Ernest Bai Koroma

“The threat is never over until we rebuild,”

he stressed at an Ebola Recovery Conference in July looking at the west African country of Liberia which was declared Ebola-free by the World Health Organization after 14 long months battling against the disease. However, two months later,  in only one week ending July 5,  there were 30 confirmed Ebola cases reported in West Africa, three in Liberia, nine in Sierra Leone, and 18 in Guinea, according to the United Nations.

President Mugabe, who  was elected as the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) on 30 January 2015, said that

“we cannot afford to be complacent”

because the underlying causes of the diseases’ exacerbation still exist.

Although there is emphasis on health, the recovery plans are comprehensive, focusing on issues from water, and sanitation, to gender, youth and social protection; and even information and communication technology.

The number of measles-related deaths has decreased 79% from 546 800 at the beginning of the century to 114 900 in 2014. New data released by WHO for the Measles & Rubella Initiative, estimates that 17.1 million lives have been saved since 2000, largely due to increased vaccination coverage against this highly contagious viral disease. Measles vaccination has played a key role in reducing child mortality and in progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4.

2015 showed that overall progress towards increasing global immunization coverage has recently stagnated. While coverage with the first dose of the measles vaccine increased globally from 72% to 85% between 2000 and 2010, it has remained unchanged the past 4 years.

Measles outbreaks, which happen when there are gaps in vaccination programmes, continue to pose a serious challenge to meeting global targets. The Americas and Western Pacific regions saw increased numbers of cases in 2014, mostly due to large outbreaks in China, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In other regions, although the overall number of cases fell, some individual countries still had large outbreaks, including Angola, Ethiopia, India, the Russian Federation and Somalia.

Tuberculosis

The potentially fatal contagious disease Tuberculosis (TB or phthisis) remains one of the world’s most deadly infectious diseases. After World War II, the death rate was only a small fraction of what it was a century earlier, but by the 1990s, the emergence of tuberculosis strains resistant to antibiotics and the connections between tuberculosis and AIDS again made it a significant health concern. In the late 1980s and early 1990s an epidemic of this ancient disease killed hundreds of people, forcing politicians to rethink their approaches to those living on the margins of society, and provoking a response which has cost millions of dollars.
In 2013, 9 million people fell ill with TB and 1.5 million died from the disease. Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. After about 45 years of scarce innovation for TB medicines, in 2015 5 new products were included in the EML. Four of these, including bedaquiline and delamanid, target multi-drug-resistant TB.

Epidemics of meningococcal A meningitis

While N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and continues to predominate in Africa, where it causes most of the major epidemics in the meningitis belt, accounting for about 80% to 85% of documented meningococcal meningitis cases.

For a century, epidemics of meningococcal A meningitis, a bacterial infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, have swept across 26 countries in sub-Saharan Africa killing and disabling young people every year. The disease is highly feared on the continent; it can kill or cause severe brain damage within hours.

WHO/R. Barry

But just 5 years after an affordable meningitis A vaccine was introduced, its use has led to the control and near elimination of deadly meningitis A disease in the African “meningitis belt.” In 2013, only 4 laboratory-confirmed cases of meningitis A were reported by the 26 countries in the belt, which stretches across the continent from Senegal to Ethiopia.

The meningitis A vaccine for Africa, MenAfriVac, was developed in response to a plea for help from ministers of health in sub-Saharan Africa after an outbreak of meningitis A in 1996 infected over 250 000 people and killed over 25 000 in just a few months. The vaccine costs less than US$ 0.50 a dose and wherever it has been rolled out, meningitis A has disappeared.

Before 2010, meningitis epidemics were becoming more frequent and widespread throughout Africa, placing a great burden on individuals, families, and the health systems of affected countries.

MenAfriVac was introduced as an improvement over older polysaccharide vaccines, which can only be used after epidemics have started, do not protect the youngest children or infants, do not alter disease transmission and provide only short-term protection. Scientists found that 90% of individuals who were vaccinated with MenAfriVac still had protective antibodies in their system 5 years later. Studies show that this is a good predictor of even longer-term protection that scientists will continue to track.

An added benefit is that the vaccine also boosts protective immune responses to tetanus, a painful bacterial disease that can cause involuntary muscle tightening and spasms sometimes strong enough to fracture bones. Tetanus cases in newborn babies have fallen by 25% in countries that completed Meningitis A campaigns in 1 through 29 year olds, according to one of the studies in the collection.

Antibiotic resistance

Still to many doctors prescribe unnecessary antibiotics because their patients want them. Many people also not taking the tablets until the end of the prescribed period make that bacteria change and become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause.

Over-use and misuse of antibiotics increase the development of resistant bacteria, and a survey published in November points out some of the practices, gaps in understanding and misconceptions which contribute to this phenomenon.

Almost two thirds (64%) of some 10 000 people who were surveyed across 12 countries say they know antibiotic resistance is an issue that could affect them and their families, but how it affects them and what they can do to address it are not well understood. For example, 64% of respondents believe antibiotics can be used to treat colds and flu, despite the fact that antibiotics have no impact on viruses. Close to one third (32%) of people surveyed believe they should stop taking antibiotics when they feel better, rather than completing the prescribed course of treatment.

“The rise of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, and governments now recognize it as one of the greatest challenges for public health today. It is reaching dangerously high levels in all parts of the world,”

said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General, in launching the survey findings on November 16.

“Antibiotic resistance is compromising our ability to treat infectious diseases and undermining many advances in medicine.”

The survey findings coincide with the launch of a new WHO campaign ‘Antibiotics: Handle with care’—a global initiative to improve understanding of the problem and change the way antibiotics are used.

“The findings of this survey point to the urgent need to improve understanding around antibiotic resistance,”

says Dr Keiji Fukuda, Special Representative of the Director-General for Antimicrobial Resistance.

“This campaign is just one of the ways we are working with governments, health authorities and other partners to reduce antibiotic resistance. One of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century will require global behaviour change by individuals and societies.”

Protecting lives and livelihood

Liberian economist and political leader Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

Liberian economist and political leader Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

President of Liberia Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf  speaking on behalf of the Mono River Union (MRU), the intergovernmental institution comprising the three countries  — Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia —  stated that the plan is fully aligned with development plans, with a focus on

“empowering our communities who were determined to protect their lives and their livelihoods”,

cash transfers to local communities being a central part of the plan.

Sirleaf stated that 4 billion dollars was the amount needed for the next two years to implement the sub-regional plans, however over 5 billion dollars was promised during the pledging segment of the conference.

Both Mugabe and Sirleaf called on the international community for a debt cancellation of 3.16 billion for the three countries, and Mugabe called on the private sector, especially those involved in extracting natural resources, to be socially responsible and engage in building economic resilience in their countries.

In Guinea, where a measles outbreak was declared in early 2014 – prior to Ebola – the number of confirmed measles cases increased almost fourfold, from 59 between January and December 2013 to 215 for the same period in 2014, according to WHO.

Rash of rubella on back (crop).JPG

A rash due to rubella on a child’s back. The area affected is similar to that of measles but the rash is less intensely red.

45 countries and territories of the Americas participated in the 13th annual Vaccination Week in the Americas (April 25 to May 2), the largest international health initiative in the Western Hemisphere, and were happy to declare the Americas region become the first in the world to be declared free of endemic transmission of rubella, also known as German measles, a contagious viral disease which caused widespread outbreaks throughout the Americas before the introduction of the MMR vaccine. When contracted by women during pregnancy it caused multiple birth defects as well as foetal death, all over the world.

This achievement culminates a 15-year effort that involved widespread administration of the vaccine against measles, mumps, also known as epidemic parotitis and rubella (MMR) throughout the Western Hemisphere.

Before mass-scale rubella vaccination, an estimated 16,000 to more than 20,000 children were born with CRS each year in Latin America and the Caribbean, while more than 158,000 rubella cases were reported in 1997 alone. In the United States, 20,000 infants were born with CRS during the last major rubella outbreak (1964-65).

2015 saw the fourth year of World Immunization Week.

Malaria

Particularly alarming is one of the oldest known infections, malaria’s literal ascent into the densely-populated highlands of east Africa. Inhabitants of southwest Uganda and parts of Zambia and Rwanda typically lack the genetic resistance to malaria developed by farmers in mosquito-prone areas.

Sudan has begun, with the assistance of FAO and the IAEA, to release sterilized male mosquitoes into the air in hopes that they crowd out their virile brethren and lead to reduced mosquito populations.

Climate change and risk profile of the human environment

Climate change wreaks all sorts of changes in the risk profile of the human environment. For example, more and more Zambians are killed by crocodiles, lions and buffalos as they travel further for water in times of drought.

Less headline-grabbing, but more pervasive, is the way one poor harvest can wipe out livelihoods, driving people to sell their livestock, tools and even land in a bid to survive and ending up mired in poverty. Similarly, pressure on the land – sometimes linked to civil conflict – is driving record flows of migrants, the majority of whom don’t leave their countries, but move into new ecosystems, as scores of Ugandans are doing by moving to the hilly southwest regions of this country and ultimately taking up a form of farming that enhances the risk of malaria.

Add to this the steady climb in average temperatures, which increase the potential habitat for the main malarial vectors and are “related to altitude rather than latitude,” according to recent research done by the International Food Policy Research Institute into why the incidence of malaria has risen so dramatically in Uganda’s upcountry. That spells special risks for elevations above 2,000 meters in Kenya, Ethiopia and Burundi, too.

It is estimated that women account for two-thirds of the 1.4 billion people currently living in extreme poverty. They also make up 60 per cent of the world’s 572 million working poor.

Rapid global change has undoubtedly opened doors for women to participate in social, economic and political life but gender inequality still holds women back. Around the globe, women and girls continue to have subordinate status, fewer opportunities and lower income, less control over resources, and less power than men and boys. Gender norms leave women and girls at risk and unable to reach their full potential. In some extreme cases, they can kill.

Globally, one in three women experience either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence during their lifetime. And, shockingly, women how have experienced intimate partner violence are 50 per cent more likely to contract HIV.

Sexual and gender-based violence is a major public health concern in all corners of the world. It’s a barrier to women’s empowerment and gender equality, and a constraint on development, with high economic costs.

In virtually every country, men spend more time on leisure each day while women spend more time doing unpaid housework. Women devote 1 to 3 hours more a day to housework than men; 2 to 10 times the amount of time a day to care (for children, elderly, and the sick), and 1 to 4 hours less a day to market activities.

Globally, female labour force participation decreases 10-15 per cent with each additional child for women aged 25-39.

Women also tend to have less access to formal financial institutions and saving mechanisms. While 55 per cent of men report have an account at a formal financial institution, the figure is just 47 per cent for women.

Mortality

Over the past 15 years, malaria mortality has decreased by 47 percent worldwide and by 55 percent in Africa alone.

In fact, 64 countries have achieved the malaria-specific Millennium Development Goal – to have halted and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015. This means less newborn, infant and maternal deaths, fewer days missed at school and work, more productive communities, stronger health systems and more vibrant economies.

But these gains are fragile and their impact unevenly distributed. As we shift gears – from the Millennium Development Goals to the broader Sustainable Development Goals – we must not forget the unfinished business of the MDGs, the unmet targets – the populations still at risk and the continuing unnecessary deaths, suffering and loss of livelihood caused by malaria.

Hunger kills more people every year than malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis combined. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines hunger as being synonymous with chronic undernourishment and is measured by the country average of how many calories each person has access to every day, as well as the prevalence of underweight children younger than five.

HIV

In Donetsk and Luhansk 38 000 persons affected by HIV and 5000 persons affected by tuberculosis could receive help from the WHO which delivered 13 tons of medical supplies to the Donetsk region in Ukraine, in February, as part of the first UN humanitarian convoy, which brought a total of 62 tons of relief materials.

Supplies included HIV and tuberculosis medical products, 612 kg of HIV test systems and 3 tons of drugs to treat infections in people with weak immune defences.

Salt and sugar

Still too much salt is there in bread and prepared meals. But in many prepared food sugar is also added for no justified reason, only to give a nicer flavour and to tempt people in eating more of it.

Sugars have become a pest in Europe and more governments face obese people plus more diabetics. Therefore Belgium like Sweden introduced a sugar tax. Strangely enough also drinks without monosaccharides (such as glucose, fructose) and disaccharides (such as sucrose or table sugar) added to it are also taxed, which gives more the impression that the Belgian government found an other milking cow, next to the car industry.

Promoting healthy diet was a key theme of the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) convened jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and WHO in November 2014. At ICN2, more than 170 countries adopted the Rome Declaration on Nutrition, and a Framework for Action, which highlight the need for global action to end all forms of malnutrition, including obesity and diet-related NCDs.

A new WHO guideline recommends adults and children reduce their daily intake of free sugars to less than 10% of their total energy intake. A further reduction to below 5% or roughly 25 grams (6 teaspoons) per day would provide additional health benefits.

The recommendations are based on analysis of the latest scientific evidence. This evidence shows, first, that adults who consume less sugars have lower body weight and, second, that increasing the amount of sugars in the diet is associated with a weight increase. In addition, research shows that children with the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks are more likely to be overweight or obese than children with a low intake of sugar-sweetened drinks. Obesity has become a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. It is not helping that the children do not play any more outside. In many regions they are not allowed any more to climb trees or to make noise when they play in the parks. Though world trends in active leisure time physical activity may be less clear, most doctors are convinced that the sedimentary lifestyle, having more people spending more time behind the little screens of their electronic gadgets shows an increase rate of childhood obesity, confirmed by 63 of 73 studies (86%).

World obesity prevalenceA positive sign in Europe may be that work is been made to alert the population and to bring halt the rise in diabetes and obesity and reduce the burden of premature deaths due to NCDs by 25% by 2025.

Pioneering new global Dementia Discovery Fund

Having a growing number of people getting older but also having a less alert mind, work is also been made to look for ways to stop dementia.

More than 47 million people are living with dementia. Sixty percent of these people live in low- and middle-income countries. Driven by population ageing, this number is expected to triple by 2050. Already, dementia and cognitive impairment are the leading chronic disease contributors to disability and dependence among older people worldwide.

In 2010, the worldwide cost of dementia, mainly driven by social-care needs, was estimated at US$ 604 billion. Without breakthroughs in effective treatment and care, these costs are set to soar, with costs growing fastest in low- and middle-income countries.

At the WHO-hosted Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in Geneva, in March, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland announced that over US$ 100 million will be invested in a pioneering new global Dementia Discovery Fund.

Major pharmaceutical companies have committed in principle to investing in promising research efforts for dementia through the project, along with the nongovernmental organization Alzheimer’s Research UK and the United Kingdom Government. The announcement was welcomed as the type of innovative mechanism that could bring about a breakthrough in treatment.

80 countries joined experts from the research, clinical and advocacy communities to discuss how, collectively, they could move forward action on dementia at the global level.

Participants highlighted the growing problem of dementia as a global public health challenge. WHO committed to leading and coordinating efforts on dementia. It also pledged to establish a Global Dementia Observatory that will monitor disease prevalence and dementia care resources in Member States and track the establishment of national dementia policies and plans.

Cancers

Cancers figure among the leading causes of illness and death worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. New breakthroughs have been made in cancer treatment in the last years, which prompted WHO to revise the full cancer segment of the Essential Medicines List in 2015: 52 products were reviewed and 30 treatments confirmed, with 16 new medicines included in the List.

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Preceding articles

Metabolic syndrome linked to colon cancer

Summary for the year 2015 # 2 Strewn with corpses and refugees

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Please do find additional information:

  1. Minimum wages in the EU
  2. Opinion: Gender Equality, the Last Big Poverty Challenge
  3. Realising Unfinished Business of MDGs : A Call for Greater Action and Investment for Malaria
  4. Essential Medicines List 2015
  5. Opinion: Hungry for Change, Achieving Food Security and Nutrition for All
  6. Agricultural Keys to Malaria in African Highlands
  7. Time for global change
  8. The Planet Remade
  9. Getting so tired of it
  10. California drought caught by satellite: Land subsidence after groundwater deficiency
  11. Water Management in Quebec: The Hydroclimatic Atlas
  12. Global Change, Peace and Security: Western Sahara: The Role of Resources in its Continuing Occupation
  13. Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas
  14. Vaccination Week in the Americas
  15. Soul Reunion

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About Marcus Ampe

Retired dancer, choreographer, choreologist Founder of the Dance impresario office and archive: Danscontact-Dansarchief plus the Association for Bible scholars, the Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" and "From Guestwriters" and creator of the site "Messiah for all". - Gepensioneerd danser, choreograaf, choreoloog. Stichter van Danscontact-Dansarchief plus van de Vereniging voor Bijbelvorsers, de Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" en "From Guestwriters" en maker van de site "Messiah for all".
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