What people want to hear or what people want to assume depends greatly on how cleverly it can be put into an acceptable or credible form. There have always been masters of falsification and crafty figures who could deceive many people.
Donald Trump has been very successful in misleading a lot of people and making them believe things that were or are not at all true.
He had wonderful help from Twitter and Facebook, who did not mind presenting all Tweets and postings this master of falsification could write and gratuitously offered to the world.
The bitter irony is that the medium of the World Wide Web supposed to have been able to offer enough media to find the truth, a lot of people were caught by the algorithms of Facebook which brought them similar messages based on the same falsities.
Instead of benefiting the world those Tweets and Facebook messages of Trump and his followers could continually saw poisonous messages and making sure that people would not come to go looking further, searching more serious journalistic papers or full-fledged reliable television channels.
The problem of the political parties in the U.S.A. and their politicians is that they allowed the poison to spread for several years, before daring to open their mouth against that blusterer and demagogue who tried to get more and more power by unconventional means.
It was a major error of judgment on their part with very serious consequences.
It made it possible that Donald Trump put the dagger in American Democracy.
- Falsity trumps honesty + fallacy swamps clarity => supply & chronic retreat = cognitive tools + intellectual acumen necessary to recognize errors or defects propagated in quotations, statements + claims from numerous sources, media, academia, luminaries, dignitaries, celebrities, ideologues, politicians, stakeholders, advertisers, influencers, Internet users + bloggers,
- a danger every coming generation shall have to face: many segments & cohorts of the population > easily convinced or manipulated to defend, support or purvey the interests, beliefs, agendas +
- Human beings proving to be as fallible in their responses to global epidemics & global warming <= vulnerable to their own mental traps, thinking styles, behavioural patterns, psychological tendencies & cognitive biases, such as availability heuristic (also known as availability bias), ethnocentrism, anthropocentrism (also called humanocentrism, human supremacy or human exceptionalism), anthropomorphism, animistic fallacy, pathetic fallacy, reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness), confirmation bias (also called confirmatory bias or myside bias), bandwagon effect, illusory truth effect (also known as the truth effect, the illusion-of-truth effect, the reiteration effect, the validity effect, and the frequency-validity relationship), truth by consensus, false-consensus effect (or false-consensus bias), overconfidence effect, selective perception, selective exposure, Semmelweis reflex (or Semmelweis effect), anchoring (or focalism), conservatism (or conservatism bias), denialism, (Trump clearly denying lots of things and wanting all to believe the others are liars and people twisting the truth.)
- Trumpo very easily jumped to conclusion which have no connection with reality, but wants his followers also to have that Everest fallacy or Texas sharpshooter fallacy, with illusory correlation, irrelevant conclusion (also known as ignoratio elenchi, false conclusion or missing the point), faulty generalization, hasty generalization (also called hasty induction, blanket statement, leaping to a conclusion, illicit generalization, fallacy of insufficient sample or generalization from the particular), glittering generality (also known as glowing generality), weasel word (or anonymous authority), jumping to conclusions (officially the jumping conclusion bias, and also called the inference-observation confusion),
- he manages to create a group attribution error, subjective validation (also known as personal validation effect), self-deception, self-serving bias (also called self-attribution bias), hindsight bias (also called the knew-it-all-along phenomenon or creeping determinism), belief bias, belief perseverance (also known as conceptual conservatism),
- as well as the formal fallacies (also called logical fallacies or deductive fallacies) and informal fallacies actions of those who propagate problematic quotations, statements or information.
- Fallacies = fake / deceptive arguments, “junk cognition,” = arguments that seem irrefutable but prove nothing.
- misquotations + disinformation => severe consequences+ > argument from ignorance + false dilemma
- people characteristically fail to account for complexity and succumb to cognitive biases,
- => gravitate towards quicker, simpler, familiar, stereotyped or expected => lead people to commit systematic deviations from logic, probability, rationality, or even decency and morality, causing various errors in judgements and decisions.
- underlying factor = information literacy
At all times we do have to be very careful to resist institutional corruption within the media system, to withstand economic influence, political clientelism and conflicts of interest, and to curtail excessive instrumentalisation of the media for particular corporate demands, political goals, partisan strategies or sectarian ideologies that are contrary to the democratic role of the media and detrimental to net(work) neutrality.
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As the third decade of the third millenium dawns, the skill and resolve for winnowing truth from falsehood have become more wanting in humans than ever before. Falsity trumps honesty, and fallacy swamps clarity. In short supply and chronic retreat are the cognitive tools and intellectual acumen necessary to recognize the errors or defects propagated in quotations, statements and claims from numerous sources, including the media, academia, luminaries, dignitaries, celebrities, ideologues, politicians, stakeholders, advertisers, influencers, Internet users and bloggers, particularly in the era of misquotations and disinformation, numerous instances of which seem to be intractably stoking people’s partial or utter ignorance as…
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