Silence, devotion, Salafists, quietists, weaponry, bombings, books, writers and terrorists

Trouble-spots across the globe

Bob Van Laerhoven seems to have survived life among the Doomed.

The full-time Belgian/Flemish author debuted in 1977 as a short story writer, and in 1985 as a literary novelist. More than 30 novels followed, some of them cross over between literature and the suspense novel.

English: Gravestones at the Potočari genocide ...

Gravestones at the Potočari genocide memorial near Srebrenica (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

He explored trouble-spots across the globe from 1990 to 2003: Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, Gaza, Iran, Iraq, Myanmar, Mozambique, Lebanon, Burundi…to name but a few. During the Bosnian war, he was in besieged Sarajevo, and in 1995 working for AZG-MSF – Doctors without frontiers – in the Bosnian city of Tuzla during the NATO bombings when the refugees arrived from the Muslim enclave of Srebrenica, he was the first writer from the Low Countries who had the opportunity to speak with the refugees. These conversations resulted in a travel book: Srebrenica – getuigen van massamoord (Srebrenica. Testimony to a Mass Murder). The book denounces the murder and torture of the Muslim population of this Bosnian-Serbian enclave and is based on first-hand testimonies. He concluded that mass murders took place, a notion that was questioned at the time but later was proven accurate.

Books in personal library and Chronicle of Suicide Attacks Foretold

Yesterday watching a news-debate program on Canvas (the 2nd channel of the Flemish state television): Terzake, with Kathleen Cools, and De Afspraak with Bart Schols, they mentioned certain books were found in the hiding places of the terrorists which would mean they were Salafist terrorists. Though I noticed I had these same books in my library, so if the police would swoop down my house I also could be considered a terrorist.

45 kilometers from where Bob Van Laerhoven lives, suicide-bombers in Brussels Airport and, quickly afterwards, in the metro of Maelbeek, squarely in the middle of the “European quarter” of Brussels, had detonated three bombs.
Looking at images of the victims who were dragged from the entrance-hall of the airport and from the tube tunnel, gaping at the formidable debris the powerful bombs, loaded with nails to cause ghastly wounds, had created, the Flemish writer couldn’t help but thinking that this was a dreadful Chronicle of Suicide Attacks Foretold.

He writes:

In the margin of the euphoria in the world press when Salah Abdeslam, one of the instigators of the terror attacks in Paris in November 2015, was captured in Brussels, I had read disturbing analyzes of the complex Jihadist network linking Brussels with Paris. Experts concluded that Brussels was no longer only the “diplomatic capital of the world,” but also the capital of Jihadist activity in Europe. The name Molenbeek, one of the municipalities of Brussels, went around the world as a hotbed for Islam fanatics. It became quickly known that Belgium had, relatively speaking, the highest number of Syria warriors in Europe. Suddenly, frantic articles were published about some districts of our capital in which, during the last twenty to thirty years, a way of life has evolved that has nothing in common with ours, that doesn’t want to integrate, that scorns and belittles us, and likes to see us destroyed.

A twisted perspective

Big problem seemed also that lots of people suddenly started seeing Islam fundamentalists rising up everywhere and considering Muslims a danger to our society. All the Kafkajan surrealist ideas became realistic in this tiny country where everything is possible.

Bob Van Laerhoven, (Jeff for his friends), formulates it this way

In short, all the caricatures of Belgium as an absurd hotchpotch of surrealistic political structures, as a beehive of Walloons, Flemings and Bruxellois who can barely tolerate each other, and prefer to guzzle chocolate and beer instead of countering Muslim terror, seemed to become true.

But is it really so bad that Walloons, Flemings and Bruxellois do not like each other and oppose each other at every occasion they can get. To me in this period of after-shock they seemed very united and coming together to share their tears for Brussels. I also have no impression at all that real lovers of Allah can agree with what those criminals have done. For sure they have done like ISIS does a lot of acts which are totally against Koran/Quran teaching.

Though Van Laerhoven warns

Although Hamas’ violence at that time was mostly directed against Israel and at Palestinians who were suspected to be collaborators, it was made clear to me that the ultimate goal of the organization was world dominance for Islam.

“Like any good Muslim aspires,”

one of them said.

Islam and Christianity for all over the world

It can well be true that lots of Muslims would like to see the Islam being shared with most people in the world. The same can be said about certain Christians. Me too as a Christian would love to see more Christians everywhere in the world. I too preach the Word of God. I also, love non-believers and other believers to show, how Allah, the Al Lah or El or Elohim, Who has to be praised, is the Most High and Only True God.

Too many people keep forgetting that “Allah” is a tittle, meaning god or high person, like there have been many gods described in the Quran, Messianic Scriptures or New Testament and in the Hebrew Scriptures or Old Testament. The Bible speaks as such about angels, Moses, Pharaoh, Apollo, Zeus, Baal and other gods but as indicated in the Torah there is only One True God, the God of Israel, Who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jeshua (Jesus), Christ’s apostles and of the Jews, Christians and Muslims.
Only by several Christians there is the problem, lots of them also worshipping a false three-headed god or Trinity, which makes so many Muslims cross.

Kuffar and Parties for or of God

Groups like the Lebanese-Iranian Islamic militia Hezbollah (Party of God) look at the entire West as “The Great Satan” because they know that many of those living there or either Trinitarian or kafars/kafirs/kuffar or unbelievers living totally in a way which is an abomination in the eyes of God. The West should know that this know indecent way of life is a thorn in their eyes. The immoral way of life for sure is something God does not like and does not approve. But it does not give any human being the right to take it in their own hands and to do immoral acts themselves, to justify their so called war on obscenity.

Those fighters who say they are doing a war for God, do forget that that God is strong enough to have His own heavenly armies to do His Work if He wants so. But according to the Holy Scriptures God has given the right to govern the world in the hands of man. This is all about what happened in the very early beginnings in the Garden of Eden.

Beginnings of Islamic terror and fear

Van Laerhoven comments:

In 1995, we had a series of bomb attacks in France by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria, but that was about it. In that period, the US had much more to endure: the bombing of the World Trade Center, shootings at the CIA headquarters in Langley, and several attacks on US embassies throughout the world.

Nevertheless, the hatred for Europe, perceived as an ally to Israel, was there. I asked a particular fiery member of Hezbollah, who had refused to shake my hand during a “press-gathering” as they called it – I was the only “press” in the room – why they hated the West so much. The standard answer usually was a flared statement about Western exploitation of Eastern treasures – be it gold, spices, and at long last ‘black gold’ – beginning with the Crusades, followed by the queen of all insults – the establishment of the Israeli State – and at long last Western colonization. Normally, there was further dwelling on the “crimes against humanity” the US had committed in Iraq and Afghanistan, and, a generalized statement condemning the contemptuous treatment of Muslim immigrant workers in Europe.

It is just that silence from the West not willing enough to come to help the protesters in Egypt, Libya and Syria which made the rebel groups so stronger and having so many Syrians losing faith in the West.

Searching for the roots

The Salafists going back to the roots, for them being the Quran and the Sunna/Sunnah, not accepting human interpretations and as such rejecting the religious innovations, or bid’ah, the Hanbali, Malekites or Maliki, Hanafi and Shafi’i, and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law)

Joas Wagemakers, who wrote The Dynamics of Islam: Piety and Fun among Muslims in the Netherlands and Elsewhere, told the viewers the Salafists try to imitate the first three generations of Muslims.
His research has concentrated on Salafism and particularly Salafi ideology; the Muslim Brotherhood; citizenship, women’s rights and Shiites’ rights in Saudi Arabia; and Hamas. He is currently working on a post-doctoral (Veni) project on Islamic activism in Jordan, which focuses on the intellectual history of quietist Salafis and the Muslim Brotherhood in that country.

For Wagemakers the Gaza-based jihadist organization Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade, which might have ties to ISIS, which itself also makes the occasional threat, got the ball rolling.

He is also convinced that ISIS tanks won’t be rolling into the Holy Land anytime soon.

Overthrowing the Israeli government is not a pressing priority for the ISIS high command. It’s more interested in taking over Sunni lands where state authority has broken down. Dabiq, ISIS’s English-language magazine, summarizes its strategy:

weaken Muslim governments through terrorism, thereby creating security vacuums (literally, “chaos” or tawahhush).

ISIS fighters will move in and  establish new state-like structures (idarat). So far, ISIS has stuck to this plan; its fighters are most active and successful in areas where there is a security void. Israel, which has one of the mightiest militaries in the Middle East, is the opposite of a security void. {Joas Wagemakers}

Israel in the theological picture

Theologically, the defeat of Israel is also a low priority because we should remember that Jerusalem is going to be the capital of the renewed world. From that city the returned prophet Jeshua (Isi of Jesus Christ) is going to govern the Kingdom of God.

Unusual for a Sunni group, ISIS is motivated by Islamic prophecies of the End Times — or at least pays a lot of lip service to them. Those prophecies envisage the conquest of Jerusalem and a war with the Jews as the final act in the End Times drama. ISIS is still in the first act, the reestablishment of the caliphate. It still has to spread the caliphate throughout the world and defeat the Christian infidels. {Joas Wagemakers}

Christians who do know the prophesies also clearly see what is going on in the Middle East as foretold in the Holy Books and is something which we should see as the signs of the End-times or Last days coming to this world or this system of things.

So despite its combative messaging, ISIS’s threats to storm Israel are empty, meant to recruit Muslims angry about the occupation rather than signal an invasion. ISIS is focused on consolidating its state and expanding it into Sunni Muslim lands; its gaze will remained fixed on Jerusalem but it won’t try to plant its flag there anytime soon. {Joas Wagemakers}

Effective use of Propaganda

For us it looks strange that the secret services could not react better to the effective and successful professional use of social media where it is able to be stronger than any attempt to deploy “counter-narratives” (or: “alternative narratives”) against them.

IS publishes videos on an almost daily basis: from gruesome execution videos the group is notorious for to movies showing the “statehood” and reconstruction of infrastructure, IS deploys a rich blend of narratives that are conveyed in pictures and related to a corpus of writings of thirty years of jihadism. By establishing a “state” (Arabic: dawla) and by rendering the borders between Syria and Iraq as irrelevant, IS has realized what AQ has pledged for decades: to erode the borders of Sykes-Picot and establish a “state” on the very theological grounds of extremist interpretation.

File:Jielbeaumadier marche contre daesh 2 paris 2014.jpeg

Demonstration at the World Day against Daesh, for Kobanê, for Humanity, conducted by the Kurdish democratic council of France and other organizations, 1 November 2014, Beaumarchais boulevard in Paris.

Daesh or the “Islamic State” has taken the lead in producing mainly Arabic language videos to incite a global Arab audience by popularizing their fighters, ideologues and preachers as ultimate role models, modern day Islamic warriors, or simply as defenders of Sunni communities in time of suffering. Many very conservative teachings are going around in Europe.

Will McCants in Islamic State of Iraq, Israel, writes

Sympathizers and media operatives use key words strategically alike with the aim to widen the appeal of the jihadist ideology, while assuming a monopoly over the mainly Qur’anic terminology in by extremist definitions. Deriving from the original Arabic, the key words are transcribed in Latin letters and are the most integral part of any non-Arabic language production. The use of these key words is significant to grade and understand what impact the Arabic dominated ideology has on non-Arab majority societies, expressed both on- and offline, whereas non-Arab foreign fighters project influence and the extremist hegemony of what it means being a ‘true’ Sunni Muslim by injecting such keywords into their target audiences. The interaction of social media platforms calls on the sympathizers to engage with such videos and role models, hence popularizing specific key words and having a potential impact on the local non-Arab milieus within non-majority Islamic societies such as in Europe and beyond.

Strangers preaching conservative ideology

From the preacher at a meeting, the reviewers of ‘de Redactie’ and Canvas get to know that in the book (Quran) all the basics of life (from beginning to end) and the way of life are given. In the episode we also get to hear how advise is given for matter how to behave or what to do in our society, to be able to have work, etc.. We also come to see how narrow-minded those Salafi’s look at things like giving a hand, or interpret having body contact being the same as to desire or to crave.

According to Wagemakers Salafists keep very strongly to their faith but fence off all those who  belief differently. For him they consider themselves always as ‘strangers’, which they do find an honour to be so.

The fact they are different from society can be seen as a sign that they are doing it good. {Free translation from my viewing yesterday}

As a s “a path, a way, a manner of life”; “all the traditions and practices” of the Islamic prophet that “have become models to be followed” by Muslims is the purity presented to the world, mankind has to follow.

Welcoming non-Arab Muslim foreign fighters

People in the West should come to see that Arab movement fighting for independence, wanting to have an Islamic State (hence IS) is welcoming non-Arab Muslim foreign fighters into their ranks, but those coming in the ranks should be very careful how they might be used. Because we can see that IS loves to use them as canon meat balls. Having them to become martyrs saves on ‘pure Muslims’.

Practical is also that non-Arab foreign fighters can be used to address the ‘heathen world’ in their own language. Those European fighters can be seen in special videos with Arabic and non-Arabic titles. This accounts for Brits, Germans, Austrians, French, Russians, and so on, while the overwhelming majority of IS and AQ videos are in Arabic featuring native Arabs.

Imitating the prophet

All those who come to that group shall have to face a burn-out at a certain time because of them trying so hard imitating the prophet and noticing how hard it is or nearly impossible in this or any world.

With all the trouble and attention being drawn to the Salafi community it may well be that too many people think that all those conservative Muslims belong to the other revolutionary group. We should remind them that some Salafis engage in parliamentary politics and some engage in revolution (“jihadis” in their parlance). But most Salafis don’t engage in direct political action — earning them the appellation of “quietist” from Western academics.

Because quietist Salafis speak the same theological language as the jihadis but reject their violent activism, Graeme Wood thinks they offer

“an Islamic antidote to Baghdadi-style jihadism” (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi runs the Islamic State).

Misunderstanding nature of Islamic State

According to Wood the West has misunderstood the nature of the Islamic State in at least two ways. He writes

First, we tend to see jihadism as monolithic, and to apply the logic of al‑Qaeda to an organization that has decisively eclipsed it. The Islamic State supporters I spoke with still refer to Osama bin Laden as “Sheikh Osama,” a title of honor. But jihadism has evolved since al-Qaeda’s heyday, from about 1998 to 2003, and many jihadists disdain the group’s priorities and current leadership. {What ISIS really wants}

Bergen, Peter (2007) crop.jpg

American print and broadcast journalist, author, documentary producer, and CNN’s national security analyst Peter Bergen

We are misled in a second way, by a well-intentioned but dishonest campaign to deny the Islamic State’s medieval religious nature. Peter Bergen, who produced the first interview with bin Laden in 1997, titled his first book Holy War, Inc. in part to acknowledge bin Laden as a creature of the modern secular world. Bin Laden corporatized terror and franchised it out. He requested specific political concessions, such as the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Saudi Arabia. His foot soldiers navigated the modern world confidently. On Mohamed Atta’s last full day of life, he shopped at Walmart and ate dinner at Pizza Hut.There is a temptation to rehearse this observation—that jihadists are modern secular people, with modern political concerns, wearing medieval religious disguise—and make it fit the Islamic State. In fact, much of what the group does looks nonsensical except in light of a sincere, carefully considered commitment to returning civilization to a seventh-century legal environment, and ultimately to bringing about the apocalypse.  {What ISIS really wants}

Committed to purifying the world

People in the west should know that by following the takfiri doctrine, the Islamic State is committed to purifying the world by killing vast numbers of people, according to their interpretation. Also by the Ummah or Muslim community having been too long along the silent site, they could imprint their terrorist view as a Muslim view by the Western spectators.

The lack of objective reporting from its territory makes the true extent of the slaughter unknowable, but social-media posts from the region suggest that individual executions happen more or less continually, and mass executions every few weeks. Muslim “apostates” are the most common victims. Exempted from automatic execution, it appears, are Christians who do not resist their new government. Baghdadi permits them to live, as long as they pay a special tax, known as the jizya, and acknowledge their subjugation. The Koranic authority for this practice is not in dispute. {What ISIS really wants}

File:Anti takfiri congross in iran - all muslim brother toghether.jpg

Iran – all muslim brother toghether:Anti takfiri congress in Iran – Source Moslempress.com Author Moslempress 18 February 2015

Obfuscating the minds of the general public

From the United States of America very conservative  Christians and in West Europe extreme right wing people love to obfuscate the minds of the general public.

Organisations like The Oyl want people to believe that Christianity and Islam, the two largest religions in the world, their teachings are negations of each other. They write

In a very real sense, they are Spiritual photo negatives.  This matters to us because these two religions cannot coexist, and now that they are clashing, there must be a victor.  If the Western world wants to survive, it must come to grips with this issue — then act accordingly. {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other – I have taken away the shouting, or capitals, in their title}

For the writers of the blog The Oyl

Christianity is inherent to the Western mind.  Westerners don’t understand this because it is inherent: it is in everything they know from the moment they are born.  But the Western way of thinking is alien to that of the Middle East.  In the West, we tend to think in terms of the abstract:  in the Middle East, people think in more concrete, more literal terms.  It may not seem like a big difference, but it is. {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

It is not because we inherited the Greco-Roman culture, which is where we get our tendency to think in the abstract we would not have any feeling with Eastern thinking.  Originally, Christianity was a Middle eastern faith, with everything that entails.

Christianity its schism into Christendom and the few real followers of Christ

It is very good that the writers of that blog understand that when Christianity moved beyond Israel’s borders, Christ’s Gospel message was conformed to fit the culture in which it was being preached.  That has become the problem in Christendom. Centuries ago several leaders found it better to agree and go with the Roman leaders and allowed heathen elements in the faithgroup.

Opposite to what the writers of that blog want people to believe this meant the teachings were changed to fit a given culture. They write

It means the people who were preaching the Gospel made every attempt to do so in terms that the people of a given culture could understand. {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

Contrary to what those Trinitarians want people to believe it where the false teachings which troubled the apostles and not so much Paul being an instrument in adapting the Gospel to the culture.

Never has it been the idea of the apostle Paul to adapt Jesus his teachings to the sensitives of a given people. The same can be said of the different groups in Islam, where certain teachers never intended to bring a schism in the Ummah.

In the two religious groups, Christians and Muslims it was never the intention to have their converts to become Jews or having them under all the old Mosaic Laws. In both groups it was understood a new era had begun and new laws were given by God.

We wonder why some think,

though heavily influenced by Christian thinking, the West retained national and cultural identities.  The same cannot be said for Muslims. {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

A Body of believers

In Christianity, ‘The Body of Christ‘ is the term used to refer to this Spiritual family of all believers (also called Spiritual Israel). Though several conservative Christians and evangelicals say

The Bible teaches that all people can keep their cultural and national identities, yet they can still be a member of The Body of Christ/Spiritual Israel.

they themselves exclude a great part of Christians. Very often they are also very rude against non-trinitarians and even undertake terrorist acts against them.

Those Christians also not comprehend the vision of the Body of Christ, in which all should be brothers and sisters of or ‘in‘ Christ and have no preferences for culture, nationality, skin colour or race. Many of them are very racist and do not mind shooting at people.

In Islam we can find a similar term as that Body of faithful believers. They too should form one community of believers, being called the Umma. The word has various uses in the Qurʾān, but it is in the Islamic books used in the same way as in the Messianic books, especially in contrast to the social divisions of humanity. While the Qurʾān required Muḥammad to establish an Arab ʿumma out of the disunited tribes, it also envisaged the creation of a single ʿumma transcending the continuing divisions in the world.

In the philosophy of Jesus also all believers in God should come to be united, not being of this world, not bounded by labels of countries or states, but being partakers of God’s promise and of the body of Christ, believing in one unified world, where God is the Most High Ruler and Jesus the mediator between God and man.

The same as in the Body of Christ, according to Muhammad, there can be no cultural or national differences between Muslims. Muhammad commanded that all of Islam is one: culturally and nationally. This should also be so for all followers of Christ in that Body of Christ.

Therefore why should any one object to

Muhammad said this is a material reality for Muslims, not just a spiritual identity.

and continue

Therefore, where Christianity allows for many Peoples and nations, Islam demands that people become Muslim in every way. {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

That would be the same as those who say that others have to become Christian or even worse, do have to become a member of their church, because they often consider their church the only right one, even going so fart that they tell people have to belong to them or they would burn for ever in a place called hell.

Living or not living together

Christianity also allows for non-believers to coexist with Christians.  In fact, the Bible commands that non-believers must be cared for in the same way as believers.

Too many Christians do forget that though there are differences between believers and non-believers, the Bible Commands that they are to be treated fairly, justly — especially under the law.  Several conservative Christians go hard against those who do not think as they. They too go, like their fundamentalist counterparts in Islam, harm others who do not want to think like them.

Christianity commands that believers obey civil laws as long as they do not go against the law of God.

This means the Christian must disobey civil laws that contradict God’s moral law, but the Christian is not to resist the civil penalty for doing so.  {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

The same as Christians, Muslims can use the local system against itself. I would like to see those verses where is told that Muslims

are not limited to such means: they are also permitted to use force.  {Truth: The Teachings of Christianity and Islam are Negations of Each Other}

When living in this system of times we have to take into account that God’s desire for mankind is individual liberty matched with individual responsibility, so that our faith in His existence and His Word can bring us to be living according God’s Laws in God’s Kingdom.

Willingly distorting texts of Islam

today we do find lots of Christians and atheists who fall in the trap of Islamic State which has distorted the texts of Islam as preposterous, sustainable only through wilful ignorance.

There are enough Muslims who like Christians acknowledge the terrible atrocious acts of the crusaders, recognise that Muhammad’s earliest conquests were not tidy affairs, and that the laws of war passed down in the Koran and in the narrations of the Prophet’s rule were calibrated to fit a turbulent and violent time, and that today we have similar crusaders from the Muslim site as there have been from the Christian site in previous centuries. Those crusaders where often vigilantes and people going on a campaign of conquest. Many Christians seem to forget who those Knights Templars where and what they did or what happened at the inquest and Spanish prosecution. ISIS actions can be compared to the 11-13 century crusades of those who called themselves Christian.

In Haykel’s estimation, the fighters of the Islamic State are authentic throwbacks to early Islam and are faithfully reproducing its norms of war. This behavior includes a number of practices that modern Muslims tend to prefer not to acknowledge as integral to their sacred texts. “Slavery, crucifixion, and beheadings are not something that freakish [jihadists] are cherry-picking from the medieval tradition,” Haykel said. Islamic State fighters “are smack in the middle of the medieval tradition and are bringing it wholesale into the present day. {What ISIS really wants}

 

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Find also the episode of Terzake: http://deredactie.be/cm/vrtnieuws/videozone/programmas/terzake/2.43781

Preceding articles

Protest against Tzahal concert in Antwerp

2014 Politics all over the world

Funding of ISIS

Daesh hits heart of Europe

A Black day for Belgium – Brussels Airport ravage

Knife-trust in democratic sore back

Terrorist attacks in Brussels

Tears for Belgium

What Associated Press released on Wednesday 23 March 2016

Iranian media implicitly accuse Erdogan to have known of the Bruxelles’s attacks in advance

Hard questions

Social media, sympathy & shocks

Belgian Muslims Refusing to Aid Police in Finding Terrorists

Europe unites to defeat terror

Reaction from U.S.A. President Barack Obama

Find also the English short by my article:

Koran tegenover veel oudere Heilige Geschriften

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Read also

  1. Gaza in Bible Prophecy
  2. Two State Solution
  3. Egypt in the picture
  4. Hamas the modern Philistines
  5. Quran versus older Holy Writings of Divine Creator
  6. Hashem השם, Hebrew for “the Name”
  7. Christians at War? Christians using violence?
  8. Listening for the Language of Peace
  9. Israel not building up their weaponry for nothing
  10. Safe Distance program entire communities being evacuated to pre-determined locations
  11. Silence of the world about rocket attacks on Israel
  12. Syria peace talks in doubt over ‘credible partners’
  13. Tears for Belgium (on From Guestwriters)
  14. Bruxelles Ma Belle
  15. A darker and stranger place
  16. Bringers of agony, Trained in Belgium and Syria
  17. Il terrorismo è l’urlo di un bambino al buio
  18. Blinded crying blue murder having being made afraid by a bugaboo
  19. Signs of the the last days when difficult times will come
  20. Not bounded by labels but liberated in Christ

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Further reading

  1. The Hadiths and Sunna
  2. From Bida to Sunna: The Wilaya of Ali in the Shii Adhan
  3. Philosophy and Religion-Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought
  4. With All This Talk of the Sharia, What Is It Really?

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About Marcus Ampe

Retired dancer, choreographer, choreologist Founder of the Dance impresario office and archive: Danscontact-Dansarchief plus the Association for Bible scholars, the Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" and "From Guestwriters" and creator of the site "Messiah for all". - Gepensioneerd danser, choreograaf, choreoloog. Stichter van Danscontact-Dansarchief plus van de Vereniging voor Bijbelvorsers, de Lifestyle magazines "Stepping Toes" en "From Guestwriters" en maker van de site "Messiah for all".
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